Study Guide

Field 025: Exceptional Needs—Mild Intervention
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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Objective 0001
Foundations of Special Education (Standard 1)

1. In which of the following situations would a student's parents have grounds to file a complaint that their child's school has violated federal or state special education rules?

  1. The parents of a fifth grader with an emotional disability were not provided with written notice before their child was moved from an inclusive classroom to a full-time self-contained classroom.
  2. The parents of a seventh grader who struggles in math would like their child to receive special education services, but the school has determined that the student is not eligible for services.
  3. The parents of a second grader with Down syndrome do not want their child to receive the pull-out services that are specified in her IEP.
  4. The parents of a fourth grader with Asperger syndrome do not want their child to participate in state-mandated testing even with the accommodations that are included in his IEP.
Answer
Correct Response: A. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge of state and federal laws and policies related to the field of special education, including Indianaís Article 7, Rules 32-47. If the CCC makes changes to a studentís IEP, the school must provide the parent(s) with written notice before it can implement the changes. Changing a student's placement without written consent violates federal and state special education rules. The situation described in the scenario would warrant a complaint by the student's parents.

Objective 0002
Professional Roles and Responsibilities (Standard 10)

2. A new special education teacher has a challenging class in which her behavior management techniques do not always work. She would like to self-assess her strengths and weaknesses in order to become a more effective teacher. To address this goal most effectively, the teacher should first:

  1. read current articles in special education journals about behavior management techniques and make a list of ideas to try in her classroom during the school year.
  2. observe the behavior management strategies of more experienced special education teachers and incorporate these strategies into her own classroom.
  3. keep a journal recording various behavior management methods she has tried in her class and reflections on how well these methods worked for different students.
  4. attend a professional development workshop on behavior management to learn new methods for teaching her students to cooperate in class.
Answer
Correct Response: C. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of how to apply strategies for engaging in reflection and self-assessment activities to address one's own strengths and weaknesses and to determine personal goals for professional growth. Keeping a journal of teaching experiences or events allows a teacher to think deeply about which strategies work and which strategies do not work. By reflecting in this manner, the teacher can continuously improve teaching practices.

Objective 0003
Development and Characteristics of Students with Mild Exceptional Needs (Standard 2)

3. A ninth-grade student receives excellent grades across all curriculum areas. His ability to store and retrieve information learned in his classes is exceptional. However, he has difficulty in the following areas:

This student is exhibiting characteristics most commonly associated with which of the following disabilities?

  1. fragile X syndrome
  2. Asperger syndrome
  3. Down syndrome
  4. Tourette syndrome
Answer
Correct Response: B. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of types, characteristics, and etiologies of mild disabilities. Research shows that students with Asperger syndrome often display atypical social development, characterized by delays in social interaction and interpersonal communication skills. Students with Asperger syndrome typically have average or above average IQ scores and often learn information quickly. In the scenario, the student has good academic skills but has difficulty with social and communication skills, which are characteristics associated with Asperger syndrome.

Objective 0004
Assessment (Standard 3)

4. A CCC is reviewing data to plan for educational services for a student with cerebral palsy who is entering middle school. To best gauge the student's academic potential, the CCC should:

  1. focus primarily on the results of cognitive testing.
  2. consider the results from a variety of formal and informal assessments.
  3. evaluate the student's achievement against an age-based norm.
  4. compare the student's progress with that of students who have a similar disability profile.
Answer
Correct Response: B. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of measurement theory and the implications of measurement theory for selecting, administering, and scoring assessments and interpreting assessment results. Using a variety of formal and informal assessments allows the CCC to see the student's strengths and weaknesses. There is a wide range of strengths and needs associated with cerebral palsy, and one assessment would not accurately display the student's full academic potential.

Objective 0004
Assessment (Standard 3)

5. A special education teacher is consulting with a fourth-grade science teacher regarding an English Learner who has a specific learning disability. The teachers are trying to determine the best way for the student to participate in a criterion-referenced assessment. Which of the following steps should the teachers take first in this situation?

  1. deciding whether the student would benefit from having frequent breaks during the test administration
  2. identifying test items that should be modified to include pictures in place of words
  3. deciding which vocabulary words on the test should be provided in the student's primary language
  4. identifying the skills that need to be measured by the test
Answer
Correct Response: D. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of how to select, adapt, and modify assessments to accommodate students with mild exceptional needs, including students who are nonverbal or English Learners. Criterion-referenced tests measure a student's knowledge, skills, or behavior using a specific range of test items. In this scenario, a student is an English Learner who also has a specific learning disability. To make appropriate accommodations for the test, the teacher must first identify the skills that will be measured to ensure the student will have an understanding of the material that is covered.

Objective 0005
Individualized Program Planning and Implementation (Standard 4)

6. Three months into the school year, a new student from another state enrolls in an Indiana high school. The student has an IEP from his previous public school. According to Indiana's Article 7, the new school must:

  1. conduct a full reevaluation and approve or rewrite the student's existing IEP within 21 days of the student's enrollment date.
  2. hold a CCC meeting within 10 instructional days of the student's enrollment date to create and implement an IEP for this student.
  3. convene a CCC meeting within one week of the student's enrollment date to determine whether to keep the student's current IEP or draft a new one.
  4. complete a full reevaluation of the student within 30 instructional days of the student's enrollment date using the school's own assessment process.
Answer
Correct Response: B. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of case conference committee (CCC) members in developing and implementing IEPs. According to Indiana's Article 7, if a student with a disability moves from another school district or state, the school must hold a CCC meeting within 10 school days of the date the student enrolls. The CCC will meet to create an IEP that addresses the student's needs.

Objective 0005
Individualized Program Planning and Implementation (Standard 4)

7. Eli is an eighth-grade student with a specific learning disability who requires assistive technology accommodations across the curriculum in writing. Eli's CCC is discussing assistive technology to include in his IEP to support him with his written output in his classes. All classroom teachers are supportive of his use of assistive technology to facilitate written output in their classes. Which of the following assistive technology choices would be most appropriate for the CCC to select for this purpose?

  1. providing Eli with a computer station in each subject area and the option of printing out copies of his class work and/or homework
  2. allowing Eli to talk into a recording device and then transposing the data after school in the computer lab
  3. allowing Eli to dictate his responses and ideas to his paraeducator as she types on a designated classroom keyboard
  4. providing Eli with a portable keyboard or laptop that he can use in each classroom and take home to complete class work and/or homework
Answer
Correct Response: D. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of how to incorporate and implement assistive technology into IEPs to facilitate student learning. Assistive technology for students with specific learning disabilities can make a substantial difference in improving their academic progress. In this scenario, Eli needs help with written output, which is a task he will likely need to do in most of his classes. The use of a portable keyboard or laptop is the most appropriate assistive technology device for Eli because it allows him to carry it between his classes and also use it at home if needed.

Objective 0006
Learning Environments (Standard 5)

8. For students with disabilities, research demonstrates that learning is greater and behavior is more appropriate when both the general education and special education teachers:

  1. frequently review concepts that have been previously taught.
  2. reinforce all positive behaviors with tangible, cumulative rewards.
  3. consistently provide more positive attention than negative attention to classroom events.
  4. monitor and document all instances when students are not on task academically.
Answer
Correct Response: C. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of how teacher attitudes and behaviors can affect students with and without disabilities and the ability to apply strategies for developing and maintaining rapport with all students. According to research, a strong classroom management system helps students with disabilities develop positive classroom behavior, study habits, and organizational skills. Students with disabilities benefit from a structured reinforcement system and positive attention from teachers.

Objective 0007
Instructional Planning and Delivery (Standard 6)

9. Which of the following scenarios best illustrates an example of a special education teacher promoting a self-management strategy with a student with ADHD?

  1. The teacher breaks an assignment into different subtasks for the student to complete.
  2. The teacher reinforces the student when she completes all requirements of an assignment.
  3. The teacher teaches the student to use a checklist of steps to make sure she is prepared for class.
  4. The teacher uses a rubric to rate the student on whether activities are completed in a timely manner.
Answer
Correct Response: C. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate the ability to apply research-supported strategies for teaching students with mild exceptional needs to use learning strategies and other cognitive strategies across the general education curricula to meet their own needs. Students with ADHD often forget items that are necessary to be successful in the classroom. Verbal reminders are not always helpful, and students often become reliant upon an adult reminding them of things they need. A checklist of items needed for class that can be independently referenced is an effective self-management strategy to help ensure that the student is prepared for class.

Objective 0008
Communication and Social Skills (Standard 7)

10. A high school special education teacher would like to increase the self-efficacy of a student with a mild cognitive disability. The student has an IEP goal of being responsible for following his own academic schedule. Which of the following strategies would likely be most effective for the teacher to use with this student?

  1. assigning a peer escort to reinforce the student's schedule choices
  2. sending a copy of the next day's schedule home each night for the student's family to review with him
  3. creating a written schedule for the student that incorporates visual or picture cues
  4. setting up a system of incentives to encourage the student to follow his schedule
Answer
Correct Response: C. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate the ability to apply strategies for increasing students' self-efficacy skills. Self-efficacy is the student's belief in personal capabilities and knowing how to achieve them. Developing organizational skills is an essential self-efficacy task. In this situation, a written schedule with visual cues will enable the student to be independent and responsible for managing his own day.

Objective 0008
Communication and Social Skills (Standard 7)

11. April is a fifth-grade English Learner who has a specific learning disability in mathematics. Her CCC decides to include the sheltered English approach in her IEP. Which of the following strategies would be included in this approach?

  1. teaching April all her subjects in English at a level that is constantly modified according to her understanding of the material
  2. teaching April most of her academic subjects in her primary language and teaching English as a separate academic subject
  3. providing April with an interpreter during academic subjects and immersing her in English at other times such as lunch and music class
  4. allowing April's written work to be in her primary language until she has gained some fluency in English but requesting that oral responses be primarily in English
Answer
Correct Response: A. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate the ability to apply strategies for supporting the communication skills of English Learners. The sheltered English approach is one that ensures students understand the content while expanding their English language development. All instruction is in English to promote the development of the English language proficiency, and grade-level content is modified according to the student's understanding.

Objective 0009
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (Standard 8)

12. A third-grade student with Asperger syndrome often doodles or stares out the window while her teacher is talking. The teacher is concerned that the student is not paying attention in class and consults with the special education teacher regarding how to respond to these behaviors. Which of the following questions would be most important for the special education teacher to ask first in consulting with the third-grade teacher?

  1. Does the problem behavior impede the learning of the student or the learning of others in the class?
  2. How does the problem behavior require the teacher to provide accommodations for the student when teaching?
  3. Has the teacher implemented other less restrictive strategies to change the problem behavior?
  4. How can a positive behavioral intervention be designed to support changing the problem behavior?
Answer
Correct Response: A. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of how to apply the principles of positive behavioral interventions and supports for students with mild exceptional needs. To identify the seriousness of the specific problem behavior, a teacher must first know if the student's actions are impeding his or her learning or the learning of others in the class. This information will help the teachers target the behaviors to be addressed. For example, if a particular behavior is not impeding learning, then the special education teacher may suggest that the general education teacher ignore the behavior. On the other hand, if the behavior is impeding learning, then the special education teacher may suggest conducting an FBA to determine the cause of the behavior and address it.

Objective 0009
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (Standard 8)

13. A sixth-grade student with ADHD is having difficulty getting settled after he makes transitions to different classrooms. He is often out of his seat or talking when his teachers are ready to begin, and as a result, getting in trouble in several of his classes. His teachers are meeting with a special education teacher to discuss how to address his behavior. Which of the following questions would be most important for the teachers to consider first?

  1. What consequences could the teachers administer immediately when the student does not settle down and attend to task?
  2. How can the teachers effectively coordinate a response to redirect the student to attention and implement their response consistently?
  3. Will removal of the student from a classroom for a period of time disrupt the general learning environment for other students?
  4. Which teacher responds most effectively to the student's behavior and would be willing to have other teachers send the student to his or her class as needed?
Answer
Correct Response: B. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of how to coordinate with stakeholders in the implementation of positive behavioral interventions and supports. Research shows a greater success in changing student behaviors when teachers work collaboratively. The teachers must decide what consequences they can all follow through with immediately when interacting with this student so that they can provide a consistent response to his behavior in every class.

Objective 0010
Transitions (Standard 9)

14. To receive support services, students with disabilities who are entering postsecondary education will need:

  1. documentation of their specific disability and their individual strengths and weaknesses.
  2. copies of current accommodations from their secondary school.
  3. evidence of passing grades from secondary courses that incorporate study strategies and time management skills.
  4. transcripts from summer precollege courses taken at an affiliate four-year college.
Answer
Correct Response: A. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate the ablility to apply knowledge of resources, strategies, and techniques for promoting successful life transitions for students with mild exceptional needs into postsecondary settings. Students with disabilities who need academic support in a postsecondary setting must provide documentation to the institution they are planning on attending. This documentation is typically an educational assessment and is used by the postsecondary school to identify how a student's ability to function is limited as a result of the disability.

Objective 0010
Transitions (Standard 9)

15. Cynthia is a preschooler with a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who is getting ready to make the transition into kindergarten. Cynthia has age-appropriate social skills and number skills but has difficulty with daily routines. Although she has been in the same early childhood center for two years, she finds it difficult to remember her early morning routine. For example, she often leaves her coat on the floor of the coat room, does not give parent notes to the preschool teacher, and does not hang up her backpack in the correct spot. The kindergarten teacher and the early childhood special educator wish to create a morning routine in which Cynthia can be independent and successful. Which of the following teacher strategies would likely be most effective for this purpose?

  1. watching Cynthia closely each morning and providing positive feedback when she completes all necessary morning tasks in an acceptable manner
  2. pairing Cynthia with a student on the first day of school who will demonstrate all the necessary morning tasks in the correct order
  3. cueing Cynthia with key words such as coat, backpack, and parent notes so that she will be sure to complete each of the morning tasks successfully
  4. creating a laminated morning routine card that Cynthia can use to check off pictures that correspond to each necessary morning task
Answer
Correct Response: D. This question requires the examinee to demonstrate knowledge of how to plan and provide instruction in daily living skills for students with mild exceptional needs. When memory systems are disrupted due to a brain injury, a student may need to learn strategies so that further learning can take place. A visual checklist is one way that a student with a TBI can compensate for an impaired memory. A visual checklist will allow Cynthia to have a reference if she forgets what to do next during her morning routine and also will help her to become more independent.

Field 064: Exceptional Needs—Mild Intervention: Reading Instruction